That is, the Catholic Church considers the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, to be the successor to Saint Peter.

question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy, and Raymond E.

Brown says that, while it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church".

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though the issue of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism is still debated today.

To resolve doctrinal differences among the competing factions within the Church, in or around the year 50, the apostles convened the first Church council, the Council of Jerusalem.

Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas.

The empire's well-defined network of roads and waterways allowed easier travel, while the Pax Romana made it safe to travel from one region to another.

The government had encouraged inhabitants, especially those in urban areas, to learn Greek, and the common language allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood.

At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, Sunday was being regarded as the primary day of worship.

The organization of the Church began to mimic that of the Empire; bishops in politically important cities exerted greater authority over bishops in nearby cities.

In the first few centuries of its existence, the Church formed its teachings and traditions into a systematic whole under the influence of theological apologists such as Pope Clement I, Justin Martyr and Augustine of Hippo.

The history of the Catholic Church begins with the teachings of Jesus Christ (c. AD 30), who lived in the Herodian Tetrarchy (later formed into the Roman province of Judea (Roman province) by the Roman Empire).

Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion.

On the other hand Commodus and other villainous emperors rather favoured them." Religious philosopher Simone Weil wrote: "By the time of Constantine, the state of apocalyptic expectation must have worn rather thin.