Other major purposes of testing are to communicate what are viewed as paramount goals in the curriculum and to motivate to self-study [15].

Since tests have a fundamental impact on learning, the following aspects must be thoroughly considered in the development of test questions: type, format, content, validity, reliability, educational impact, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability [15,16,17]. The experts represented 3 different centers in 2 European countries (Denmark and The Netherlands). Based on the information gathered from the 4 interviews, MCQs were constructed according to a manual by Case and Swanson [15], advice concerning written tests by Downing [17], and a taxonomy of 31 multiple-choice item-writing guidelines by Haladyna [21].

The acquisition of cognitive skills provides trainees with the necessary foundation to properly perform technical skills [11].

Predominantly, the purpose of testing is to assess theoretical knowledge (i.e.

No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication.

The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

The 3 groups performed significantly differently (ANOVA: p Accurate staging of non-small cell lung cancer is pivotal in determining therapeutic strategies, and the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes through tissue verification is a key component [1,2].

The purpose of this step was to examine whether the MCQ test scores could discriminate between 3 groups consisting of novices, intermediates, and experts representing no, limited, and high endosonography experience.

The group of novices was defined as medical students in their seventh semester of medical school who had lately passed their exam in pulmonology.

This study was comprised of two parts: the development of MCQs and gathering of validity evidence (fig. Questions rated ‘1' by one or more members of the panel were excluded and questions with a mean rating of 4 or less were reevaluated until unanimity was reached.

The experts were also instructed to comment on the wording in order to achieve clarity of the items.

Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s).