The mighty Nalanda University existed at Nalanda which was destroyed by Bakhtiar Khilji during the 12th century and also defeated Sena Dynasty.Sher Shah Suri, who became king of India after defeating Humayun, founded the city of Patna on the ruins of ancient Pataliputra.India's independence movement had strong roots in East India.

After independence in 1947, the states joined the Indian Union and took their current form after the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Today, they continue to face problems of overpopulation, environmental degradation and pervasive corruption despite significant economic and social progress.

Jharkhand, on the Chhota Nagpur plateau, is a hilly and a heavily forested state rich in mineral wealth. The region is bounded by the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal on the east.

It is connected to the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by the narrow Siliguri Corridor in the north east of West Bengal.

With the arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century, outposts were established in Odisha Coast and Bengal.

The European traders established their trade centres in the famous ports of Balasore, Pipili, Palur in the Odisha Coast during the rule of the last independent Hindu king Gajapati Prataprudra Dev.

Together with Bangladesh, West Bengal formed the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal before partition in 1947.

The modern state of Odisha was known as Kalinga, Odra desha and Utkala in ancient times.

Among these states, Bihar is considered to be a part of North India as well.