Methods Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) collected from 2008 to 2011 were used.A total of 7368 subjects were included in this study after exclusion of subjects with missing data and those who were self-employed or could not work.

Korean free adult web-19

The temporary employment rate has gradually increased since the economic crisis of 1997, by 24.4% from 2003 to 2013.15 In 2011, it was 27.1%, second only to Chile among OECD countries.

It was a complicated situation for female employees: 70% of female employees were irregularly employed in 2000, compared to 57% in 1995.16 Ma's study17 showed that the economic crisis affected Korean women's return to work after childbirth and their career prospects.

The data from KOWEPS, an ongoing longitudinal study that produces nationally representative data, are published annually.

KOWEPS started in 2006 with 18 856 Korean participants from 7072 households,23 with a follow-up rate of 73.6% in 2012 compared to households in 2006.

Subjects who were self-employed (N=1299), unable to work (N=1996), under 18 years of age (N=2) or disabled (N=1321) were excluded.

Those with missing variables (N=669) were then excluded to give a final total of 7368 included subjects.

In our study, data (N=9336) from 2009 were considered the baseline data.

Data in 2008 were included as lagged data in the baseline data.

Indeed, unstable work often involves undesirable jobs and/or low wages.10 Additionally, the health effects of precarious employment may depend on the degree of instability.11 Unemployment status was related to psychological status such as anxiety, depression and lowered health outcomes due to job loss.12In Korea, the precarious employment rate has increased and job security has decreased over recent years.