is a historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England.By road, the town is situated 74 miles (119 km) northwest of London, 42 miles (68 km) southeast of Birmingham, 27 miles (43 km) south of Coventry and 23 miles (37 km) north-by-northwest of the county town of Oxford. Banbury is a significant commercial and retail centre for the surrounding area of north Oxfordshire and southern parts of Warwickshire and Northamptonshire which are predominantly rural.

The post of the mayor of Banbury was created in 1607. A number of roads are named after former mayors of the town, including Mascord Road, Mold Crescent and Fairfax Close.

Another former mayor, Angela Billingham, went into national politics.

Merton Street goods depot continued to handle livestock traffic for Banbury's cattle market until 1966, when this too was discontinued and the railway dismantled.

In March 1962 Sir John Betjeman celebrated the line from Culworth Junction in his poem Great Central Railway, Sheffield Victoria to Banbury. The main railway station, now called simply Banbury, is now served by trains running from London Paddington via Reading and Oxford, from London Marylebone via High Wycombe and Bicester onwards to Birmingham and Kidderminster and by Cross Country Trains from Bournemouth to Birmingham and Manchester.

Banburyshire is an informal area centred on Banbury, claimed to include parts of Northamptonshire and Warwickshire as well as north Oxfordshire.

Use of the term dates from the early to mid 19th century.It retained a borough council until 1974, when under the Local Government Act 1972 it became part of the traditionally Conservative-ruled Cherwell District Council, an unparished area with Charter Trustees.A civil parish with a town council was set up in 2000.Since its closure in June 1998 a new housing development has been built on its site which includes Dashwood Primary School.The estate, which lies between Banbury and Hanwell, was built in between 2005–06, on the grounds of the former Hanwell Farm.The site contained around 150 pieces of pottery and stone.