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The largest run-up (measured as elevation about sea level) was recorded as 7.9m (Australian Height Datum (AHD)) at Steep Point in Western Australia from the July 2006 Java tsunami. DOI: 10.1177/0309133314522282 Geoscience Australia receives real-time data from over 60 seismic stations in Australia and more than 130 international seismic stations.
Tsunami are waves caused by sudden movement of the ocean surface due to earthquakes, landslides on the sea floor, land slumping into the ocean, large volcanic eruptions or meteorite impact in the ocean.
Until recently, tsunami were called tidal waves, but this term is generally discouraged because tsunami generation has nothing to do with tides (which are driven by the gravity of the Earth, Moon and Sun).
In any case, the shoaling effect can greatly increase open ocean wave heights upon reaching the coast, with some tsunami reaching an onshore height more than ten metres above sea level.
Such extreme inundation is more likely to occur nearer to the tsunami generation location (where oceanic wave heights are larger), and at locations where the coastline shape is particularly favourable to amplification of the tsunami.
While wind-generated waves in deep water only cause water movement near the surface, the passage of a tsunami involves the movement of water from the surface to the seafloor.
Interestingly, this causes the speed of a tsunami to be controlled by the water depth, with faster speeds in deeper water, unlike wind-generated waves.Following consultation, the Notifiable Data Breaches (NDB) scheme resources have been finalised.You can view all of the resources on our NDB webpage.This evidence is revealed through anomalous sedimentary deposits (such as those containing shell or coral) or other geomorphic features (Dominey Howes, 2007; Goff and Chauge-Goff, 2014).More recently, tsunami continue to be recorded in Australia with most presenting little threat to coastal communities.Consequently, a tsunami slows as it approaches land and reaches increasingly shallow water, with the distance between successive wave peaks decreasing.